photo credits: joshua benoliel
photo credits: joshua benoliel
Variable dimensions

Café Portugal,
Adriana Molder, Ângela Ferreira, António Olaio, Carla Cruz, Célia Domingues, Eduardo Matos, Joana Vasconcelos, João Fonte Santa, João Pedro Vale, José Luís Neto, Mafalda Santos, Manuel Botelho, Miguel Palma, Nelson Crespo, Paulo Catrica, Pedro Amaral, Pedro Valdez Cardoso, Rui Calçada Bastos, Rui Moreira, Rui Toscano e Susana Mendes Silva
Curated by Filipa Oliveira

Thank you:
Arquivo Fotográfico do Arquivo Municipal de Lisboa
Biblioteca-Museu República e Resistência
Museu da Presidência da República
Museu Maçónico Português
Nuno Neves
João Esteves
Adelaide and Carolina sew in secret the historical flag that is supposed to have been unfurled at the Praça do Município (City Hall Square) in Lisbon, in the morning of the Republican Revolution, on the 5th October 1910.

Adelaide Cabete (1867-1935)
Orphan and of humble origin, Adelaide was helped by her husband in pursuing her studies in 1885 and became an obstetrician and gynaecologist. She was the third woman to graduate from medical school in Portugal.
As a republican and feminist, she pursued a strong militant activity for the dignification and empowerment of women. She was a Freemason, and was one of the founders of the Republican League of Portuguese Women, which was connected to the Republican Party, and supported the fall of the constitutional monarchy. Disappointed with the political situation in the country, she moved to Angola in 1929, together with her nephew Arnaldo Brasão, dedicating herself to the medical practice. She was the first and only woman to vote for the Portuguese Constitution in Luanda, Angola, in 1933.

Carolina Beatriz Ângelo (1877-1911)
Medical doctor and activist, Carolina is connected with the creation of the first women's organizations in Portugal. She was a Freemason and active member of the Republican League of Portuguese Women, an institution that fought to establish the republic in the country and claimed equal rights and duties for both genders.
Registered with the number 2513, Carolina Beatriz Ângelo voted in the election for the Assembleia Nacional Constituinte (National Constituent Assembly), which took place on the 28th May 1911, becoming the first woman to vote in Portugal and the South European countries. This event took place at the Arroios voting centre, at the Clube Estefânia. This historical moment was captured in a picture taken by Joshua Benoliel.

I couldn't find the original flag, nor could I find its design. Some sources mention the flag being unfurled at the Praça do Município, others at Rotunda, and still another version claims that more than one flag was sown. In Joshua Benoliel's photographs one can sense that on that 5th October only a slight breeze was blowing, such that wouldn't allow the flags unfurled in Lisbon to flutter... Nevertheless, one thing is known: Adelaide and Carolina's flag was one of republican inspiration – red and green.